Cereals commodities: Wheat, Rice, Rye, Oats, Barley, Corn, Millet, Sorghum, Buckwheat, Amaranth.
Oats, barley, and some food products made from cereal grains.
Grain redirects here. For other uses, see Grain (disambiguation).
This article is about cereals in general. For the breakfast food, see Breakfast cereal.
Cereals, or cereal grains, are mostly grasses cultivated for their edible brans or fruit seeds (botanically, a type of fruit called a caryopsis). Cereal grains are grown in greater quantities and provide more energy worldwide than any other type of crop; they are therefore staple crops. They are also a rich source of carbohydrates. In some developing nations, grain in the form of rice, wheat, or maize constitutes practically the entire diet. In developed nations, cereal consumption is more moderate and varied but still substantial.
We can send samples as an example of the goods this year, a new crop.
Every rule has an exception. Sending samples and waiting for your confirmation of the purchase of this product, it usually takes about 1-2 weeks. We do not have the physical capacity to wait, store, cleaning, drying, packing, marking, receive and ship goods more than 30 items, depending on the type and purpose. In addition, storage and invested in commodity funds each day increase the price of the goods, which adversely affects the profitability. You agree to pay for the storage of the goods that you have not bought yet? I think not. We do not have the opportunity. There is an offer on our part to deliver the goods in accordance with the contract.
The word cereal derives from Ceres, the name of the pre-Roman goddess of harvest and agriculture. Cereal grain is called corn in the United Kingdom and Ireland. But in the United States, Canada, New Zealand, and Australia, maize is called corn.
Cereal grains are members of the monocot family Poaceae.
Maize, wheat and rice, between them, accounted for 87% of all grain production, worldwide, and 43% of all food calories in 2003. Other grains that are important in some places, but that have little production globally (and are not included in FAO statistics), include:
• Teff, popular in Ethiopia but scarcely known elsewhere. This ancient grain is a staple in Ethiopia. It is high in fiber and protein. Its flour is often used to make injera. It can also be eaten as a warm breakfast cereal similar to farina with a chocolate or nutty flavor. Its flour and whole grain products can usually be found in natural foods stores.
• Wild rice, grown in small amounts in North America
• Amaranth, ancient pseudocereal, formerly a staple crop of the Aztec Empire (besides maize)
• Kaniwa, close relative of quinoa
Several other species of wheat have also been domesticated, some very early in the history of agriculture:
• Spelt, a close relative of common wheat
• Einkorn, a wheat species with a single grain
• Emmer, one of the first crops domesticated in the Fertile Crescent
• Durum, the only tetraploid species of wheat currently cultivated, used to make semolina
A wheat field in Dorset, England.
While each individual species has its own peculiarities, the cultivation of all cereal crops is similar. All are annual plants; consequently one planting yields one harvest. Wheat, rye, triticale, oats, barley, and spelt are the cool-season cereals. These are hardy plants that grow well in moderate weather and cease to grow in hot weather (approximately 30°C but this varies by species and variety). The other warm-season cereals are tender and prefer hot weather.
Barley and rye are the hardiest cereals, able to overwinter in the subarctic and Siberia. Many cool-season cereals are grown in the tropics. However, some are only grown in cooler highlands, where it may be possible to grow multiple crops in a year.
The warm-season cereals are grown in tropical lowlands year-round and in temperate climates during the frost-free season. Rice is commonly grown in flooded fields, though some strains are grown on dry land. Other warm climate cereals, such as sorghum, are adapted to arid conditions.
Cool-season cereals are well-adapted to temperate climates. Most varieties of a particular species are either winter or spring types. Winter varieties are sown in the autumn, germinate and grow vegetatively, then become dormant during winter. They resume growing in the springtime and mature in late spring or early summer. This cultivation system makes optimal use of water and frees the land for another crop early in the growing season. Winter varieties do not flower until springtime because they require vernalization (exposure to low temperature for a genetically determined length of time). Where winters are too warm for vernalization or exceed the hardiness of the crop (which varies by species and variety), farmers grow spring varieties. Spring cereals are planted in early springtime and mature later that same summer, without vernalization. Spring cereals typically require more irrigation and yield less than winter cereals.