Brown mustard (UK), Grocer’s mustard
French: moutarde noire
German: Schwarzer Senf
Italian: senape nera
Spanish: mostaza negra
Chinese: Banarsi rai, rai, kurva teil (oil)
Indian: Banarsi rai, rai, kurva teil (oil)
Japanese: karashi
Malay: diji savi
Singhalese: abba

Indian Mustard
French: moutarde de Chine
German: Indischer Senf
Italian: senape Indiana
Spanish: mostaza India
Indian: kimcea, Phari rai, rai

Mustard plant is one of a few plant species that are found in various countries.
Their mustard seeds are helpful in cooking. Mustard seeds are grinded and mixed with water and transformed into a seasoning. From mustard seeds we may extract mustard oil that is very advantageous. The seeds are about 2 mm in diameter, and may be colored from yellowish white to black. The seeds may come from three types of plants: black mustard, brown or Indian mustard, and white or yellow mustard. Mustard grows well in temperate regions. The main producers of mustard seeds embrace Hungary, Great Britain, India, Canada and the United States.

Black mustard (Brassica nigra) is a round hard seed, varying in colour from dark brown to black, smaller and much more sharp than the white.
The plant itself can grow from 2 to 8 feet tall with inflorescence of small yellow flowers. Its leaves are covered in small hairs. The leaves can fade on hot days, but recover at night. Like all seeds, mustard seeds contain considerable amounts of fatty oil (30%) that is widely used for cooking in India.

Brown (Indian) mustard
(Brassica juncea) is an annual plant  in the mustard family, having yellow flowers, petiolate leaves, and oil-rich seeds. Brown Mustard is similar in size to the black one and vary in colour from light to dark brown. It is more sharp than the white, but less than the black. Brown Mustard (Brassica juncea) is similar in size to the black variety and vary in colour from light to dark brown. It is more pungent than the white, less than the black.
Like all seeds, brown mustard seeds contain large amounts of oil.

White Mustard (Brassica alba or Brassica hirta) is a round hard seed, beige or straw coloured. Its light outer skin is removed before sale. With its milder flavour and good preservative qualities, this is the one that is most commonly used in ballpark mustard and in pickling.
It is a plant that grows to between 80 and 150 cm in height. Its yellow flowers are larger as well as its seed which is coloured in pale yellow. The seed is quite bitter and much less pungent.
Yellow mustard seeds may be used to spice any dish. They can also be used to extract mustard oil. They can be ground into a flour and combined with other ingredients to make the seasoning mustard.
Yellow mustard seed, the mildest of the three types, is appropriate for a broad range of applications, such as dry milling for flour, wet milling for mustard pastes, and whole ground seed for spice mixes, meat processing, and other food products. The oil content of yellow mustard seed is the lowest of the three types of mustard at about 27%.

Seeds of mustard (industrial raw material) GOST 9159-71 in russian

Moisture max 12 pct
Oilseeds Admixture  max 6 pct
Foreign matter max 2 pct
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